New Student Admission System in Several Countries

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New Student Admission System

Pertama GoBlog - New Student Admission Systems in Several Countries is the theme or title of this article.

On this occasion the Admin will share information about the New Student Admission System in several countries.

For this reason, please see the explanation of the New Student Admission System in several countries below.

New Student Admissions aims to select prospective students who are predicted to achieve success at the higher education level.

Apart from that, universities also strive to ensure fair access for prospective students from various backgrounds.

To achieve these two goals, policy makers in various countries have developed various new student admission systems.

Along the way, the new student admission system underwent changes based on evaluations of the effectiveness, efficiency and fairness of the previously implemented system, taking into account the demands of society and current developments.

The implementation of university entrance selection in various countries can be differentiated between systems that hold selection nationally, institutionally, and a combination of both.

Countries that only select prospective students nationally include Hungary, Portugal and Denmark.

The selection of new students which is only carried out by each university is implemented in the United States, among others.

Countries that use national and institutional selection include Indonesia, China, Taiwan and Chile.

Education systems in various countries use various criteria for accepting new students.

Some use one criterion and some combine several criteria.

Denmark, for example, only uses academic performance at the secondary education level as the only selection criterion for new student admissions.

Hungary combines the grades obtained by students at the secondary education level, the matriculation test scores used as requirements for graduation and college entrance selection, and scores related to the student's activities, achievements and background.

The majority of universities in the United States use various criteria for holistic admissions, which include, among other things, GPA at the secondary education level, college entrance test scores, non-academic achievements, extracurricular activities, and recommendations from masters.

Indonesia, China, Taiwan and Chile, for example, have several selection paths with varying selection criteria for each path.

However, new student admission test scores are still the main criteria for college entrance selection which is carried out nationally in China, Taiwan and Chile.

Below the Admin will explain the selection system for New Student Admissions (PMB) which is implemented in several countries.

New Student Admissions in China

China has a long history of implementing a national system of new student admissions based solely on exam results known as Gaokao (Liu et al., 2014).

Selection for New Student Admissions based on exam results is considered transparent and fair, but has fostered exam-oriented education at primary and secondary education levels (Wu et al., 2019).

In addition, this national selection is often criticized because it only gives students few choices, stifles students' interest and creativity, and causes anxiety in students (Wang, 2020).

As an effort to reform the new student admissions system, since 2003, China's Ministry of Education has given autonomy to leading universities to carry out independent selection known as the Free First year Recruit Affirmation Program (IFAP) with the aim of identifying and recruiting prospective students. potential, but not captured through the Gaokao system (Wu et al., 2019).

When this program was first launched in 2004, there were only 2 (two) universities involved, namely Peking College and Tsinghua College with only a five percent new student quota provided (Liu et al., 2014).

IFAP is held by each university using a gradual selection strategy which includes file selection, written exams, and group interviews (Liu et al., 2014).

The most important component in this file selection is a letter of recommendation signed by the university which is given to the best schools with a certain quota.

The written exam held at IFAP is similar to the Gaokao which includes three main subjects, namely Chinese Literature, Mathematics and English as well as two elective subjects which depend on the Gaokao grouping chosen by prospective students, namely History and Politics for prospective students who choose the program studies in the social and humanities cluster, as well as Physics and Chemistry for students who choose study programs in the science and engineering cluster.

Group interviews aim to explore the qualities and talents of prospective students as a whole with various topics that are usually not directly related to the knowledge gained in class.

Another reform of new student admissions procedures was piloted in Shanghai and Zhejiang in 2014 as a response to criticism of the Gaokao (Wang, 2020).

Under the new procedure, students in Shanghai, for example, can choose three of the six alternative subjects on the test.

Overall, there are 20 subject combinations tested.

Student scores are determined by student positioning for each subject tested.

For example, the top 5% of students got a score of 70, the top 6%-15% of students got a score of 70, the top 15-25% of students got a score of 64.

The add up score is determined by the raw score of the three compulsory subjects and the score based on positioning in the three optional subjects.

As explained by Wang (2020), although the majority of universities still use scores add up to the college entrance selection test as selection criteria, several leading universities in Shanghai have the opportunity to select prospective new students using holistic admissions, for example by considering interview results, leadership potential, and extracurricular activities, as well as holding separate tests. Additionally, students in Shanghai can retake English tests and submit higher scores (Wang, 2020).

New Student Admissions in South Korea

In an effort to reform the new student selection system which has been seen as placing a heavy burden on students with exam-oriented education towards a more holistic education.

The South Korean government initiated 2 (two) new education policies:

special high schools and varied student admission systems (Tan & Yang, 2019).

The first policy gives parents the opportunity to enroll their children in schools that can help develop their children's talents in certain fields, for example foreign languages, arts and sports.

This type of school is also known as a school with a high pass rate in college entrance selection compared to other types of high school.

As a consequence, this new policy actually creates greater pressure on students to be accepted into these special high schools and further enriches tutoring.

The second policy allows students to take part in college entrance selection through two main routes:

based on academic and non-academic achievements at secondary education level and based on college entrance selection (CSAT) scores.

Apart from these two main routes, universities can also submit other requirements, for example essays, interviews and scholastic tests.

The existence of a selection route that uses academic and non-academic achievements actually adds to the pressure that students feel because they have to compete academically and non-academically (Tan & Yang, 2019).

Non-academic performance is used as one of the selection criteria and increases competition to be accepted into special high schools which are known for their various non-academic activities.

New Student Admissions in Taiwan

University entrance selection in Taiwan has undergone changes, both in the implementation mechanism and the selection criteria used.

Like other countries in East Asia, Taiwan is one of the countries that has used the results of college entrance selection tests as the only criteria for admitting new students, which is believed to be the fairest approach because it is seen as giving everyone the same opportunity. various backgrounds (Lin & Liou, 2019).

Between 1954 and 1994, college entrance selection was based on the results of the Joint College Entrance Examination (JCEE) which was administered by different universities alternately each year (College Entrance Examination Center, 2019c).

In 1989, the Taiwanese Ministry of Education established the ROC College Entrance Examination as an effort to centralize the implementation of exams and the process of admitting new students, as well as improving the quality of JCEE, which was then reorganized as a non-profit foundation in 1993 under the name College Entrance Examination Center.

Since 2002, the Taiwan Government began accepting new students through three selection pathways, namely the Star Program (SP), individual application (Dad), and affirmation by examination and arrangement (AEP) (Lin & Liou, 2019).

SP is the newest route in the selection system which aims to attract outstanding students from schools that have been underrepresented in higher education, which are usually located in suburban areas or play on words poor areas.

The second path, namely Dad, uses a holistic approach.

Both SP and Dad require students to take the Common Educational Capacity Test (GSAT) which is carried out nationally in January when students are in their last grade at the secondary education level.

Students who are not accepted through SP and Dad can take the Progressed Subjects Test (AST) which is held in July (Lin & Liou, 2019).

GSAT measures students' knowledge and skills in Chinese, English, Mathematics, Social Sciences and Science subjects based on the curriculum in grades 10 and 11 (College Entrance Examination Center, 2019b).

The AST measures knowledge at a higher level in Mandarin, English, Mathematics I for students who choose science and engineering study programs, Mathematics II for students who choose social and humanities study programs, Geography, History, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Citizenship (College Entrance Examination Center, 2019a).

New Student Admissions in Taiwan are experiencing changes again with the implementation of a new policy in admitting students to tertiary institutions in 2022 by encouraging tertiary institutions to use more diverse selection criteria and reducing the subjects tested in the entrance test to just two to three in order to reduce the burden on students (Hsieh, 2019).

Previously, leading universities required students to take college entrance tests for five subjects.

New Student Admissions in the United States

The United States uses a selection system organized by each university.

In general, the selection system is carried out in two ways, namely holistic and automatic (Dark et al., 2016).

Holistic selection of new students is carried out by considering academic achievement which is usually represented by GPA at secondary education level, college entrance selection test scores, such as SAT/ACT, graduation exam scores held by each state, or play on words number of subjects advanced level that can be recognized as a substitute for course credits that must be taken in college, letters of recommendation from masters, and records of non-academic achievements, for example in sports and the arts (Dark et al., 2016).

Acceptance is automatically carried out based on the student's positioning at the secondary education level, report card grades at the secondary education level, standardized test results both held by the government and independent institutions, or play on words the results of college entrance tests, both those held nationally and by each -each university.

Apart from tests related to the school curriculum, academic potential tests (fitness tests) which describe students' chances of success in pursuing higher education are also one of the criteria that is often used (Dark et al., 2016).

Higher education in the state of Texas, United States, for example, since 1997 has implemented a policy of accepting the best 10 percent of students based on positioning in each school at the secondary education level without considering the quality of each school, known as the Best 10% Arrange (Dark et al. al., 2016).

This policy is a follow-up to the ban imposed by the court in the 1990s on affirmation programs in new student admissions which was previously implemented to ensure access for groups of people who tend to be marginalized (Dark, Cortes, & Lincove, 2016).

Some universities in the United States also impose a requirement for college entrance test scores as an option only, which is known as the test-optional approach.

Universities that implement test-optional arrangements view that this policy is more in line with a holistic student selection approach and can increase the diversity of student backgrounds accepted (Bennett, 2022).

New Student Admissions in Chile

From 1967 to 2003, the selection of new students for public universities in Chile used the Able test of basic verbal and mathematical reasoning abilities which is similar to the SAT I in the United States and a series of academic competency tests that tested advanced mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, and social knowledge (Koljatic et al., 2013).

However, only a few leading campuses require academic competency test results.

The majority of universities in Chile use Well-suited test results and GPA at the secondary education level.

In 2001, the Ministry of Education announced plans to develop a student admissions test to replace Well-suited with tests that measure students' abilities in mathematics, verbal (dialect aptitudes), social studies, and science related to the new national curriculum ACH test (Koljatic et al ., 2013).

This plan sparked controversy in the community considering the wide gap in school quality so that not all schools, especially those serving poor communities, could meet the demands of the negligible curriculum.

In addition, the academic achievement test is seen as more beneficial for students in public schools than vocational schools considering the differences in the number of study sticks in several subjects tested.

In 2004, the ACH test began to be implemented by simplifying the material tested as a transition form from the Well-suited test, namely by only requiring verbal and mathematics tests, while the third test could be chosen from subjects required by the study program at the target university. (Koljatic et al., 2013).

Every year the material tested continues to be added until in 2007 it has been fully tested.

When the ACH test was first implemented, there was a 15% decrease in participants for university entrance selection, especially from graduates of metropolitan schools (similar to state schools in the Indonesian context) so that the government finally waived test fees for test takers from less well-off families.

In addition, the ACH test results show that the achievement gap between graduates of metropolitan schools and paid private schools is widening.

However, test developers argue that the wide achievement gap is not related to changes in test types, but is a consequence of increasing even the test takers are from disadvantaged groups (Koljatic et al., 2013).

In order to reduce the link between socio-economic status and university admission, since 2013 Chile has used GPA positioning at the secondary education level as one of the selection criteria for entering tertiary institutions, both public and private (Fajnzylber & Lara, 2018).

The GPA positioning score has a weight of 10%, while the GPA has a weight of between 20% - 40% depending on each study program.

The GPA positioning score is the sum of the GPA conversion into a certain score and the score reward.

The GPA is converted into a score with a range ranging from 150 for a GPA of 4.0 (the minimum passing standard) to 850 for a GPA of 7.0 (excellent).

The reward score is determined based on the student's GPA performance compared to the average GPA at the school in the last three years.

The government uses the historical average GPA rather than the school's current average GPA to avoid competition between students.

A student does not receive a reward if he or she has a GPA below the historical average.

Chile also has special programs run by several universities independently to increase access for students from low-income groups who are underrepresented in higher education.

One of them is a program that started at the Universidad de Santiago in 2006.

The university eliminated the requirement for college entrance test scores for the top 10% of students who came from schools with very low performance on national assessments organized by the government (Koljatic & Silva, 2013).

Even though students accepted through this special route constitute the top 10% of students at their school, the academic performance of students accepted in the first year this program was launched was disappointing.

The selection of prospective students from this pathway was then changed in 2007 by holding a therapeutic program in mathematics, language and communication skills subjects when students were in grade 12 (Koljatic & Silva, 2013; Santelices et al., 2019).

This program, known as Propaedeutic, requires students to take a college entrance selection test (PSU), although the score obtained is not determining.

Similar programs, but with slightly different goals and selection criteria, include the Instructive Value Need Confirmation Framework (SIPEE) at the College of Chile in 2010, and the Ability and Consideration Program (T+I) at the Catholic College of Chile in 2011 (Santelices et al., 2019).

The T+I program targets students in state schools or subsidized schools with family incomes in the lowest four quintiles (groupings).

The SIPEE program targets students with family incomes in the three lowest quintiles.

Students must have a negligible school grade point average of 5.5 and a negligible PSU score of 600 or 650 depending on the course of study.

New Student Admissions in Hungary

Selection for New Student Admissions in Hungary is carried out nationally using a combination of student learning achievements at the secondary education level and "Matura" scores, namely the matriculation exam which functions as a graduation test from secondary education and an entrance exam to college (Nagy & Molontay, 2021).

Matura consists of four compulsory subjects, namely mathematics, Hungarian language and literature, history, and foreign language as well as the least two elective subjects, which can be chosen at ordinary or advanced level.

Each undergraduate study program requires two Matura subjects which depend on the intended study program.

Study programs in higher education select prospective students based on the College Entrance Score (UES), the calculation of which is based on three factors, namely Consider Focus (maximum 200 points), Matura Focus (maximum 200 points), and Additional Focus (maximum 100 points) (Nagy & Molontay, 2021).

Ponder focus is obtained from twice the total scores of four compulsory subjects and one elective subject in the field of science in the last two semesters at secondary education level (maximum 100), as well as the average score of subjects tested on Matura (maximum 100 points) so that The maximum consider focus score is 200 points.

Matura focus is obtained from the total score of two subjects determined by the intended study program (maximum 200 points).

Additional focuses can be obtained in several ways, namely choosing Matura subjects at the advanced level in subjects that are relevant to the choice of study program in order to get 50 points per subject, having a foreign language certificate with 28 points for the intermediate level and 40 points for the advanced level , have a family background from a lower socio-economic group, have special needs or live in an orphanage, with a maximum The points that can be obtained are 40.

High-level vocational training with the number of points depending on the results achieved, achievements in competitions in sports, arts or academics with points earned between 10-100.

Add up to additional points that can be obtained, namely 100.

UES calculation is carried out in two ways:

general and specific (Nagy & Molontay, 2021).

The general knowledge score is the sum of consider focus, Matura focus, and additional focus, while the specific knowledge score is calculated without including consider focus with the equation twice Matura focus plus additional focus.

These general knowledge scores and specific knowledge scores are compared and the highest is taken as the UES score.

New Student Admissions in Denmark

Selection for New Student Admissions in Denmark is carried out nationally and centrally using students' grades at secondary education level as the only selection criterion (Albæk, 2017).

To ensure that the grades obtained by students from different schools can be equalized, the Danish Ministry of Education prepares written exams that are mandatory for all schools at the secondary education level, assessments are monitored by the Ministry of Education, and oral exams are carried out by masters and mediators. external.

The institution that handles student selection nationally and centrally ranks students' GPAs, then students with the highest GPA are accepted into the study program that is the student's first choice until the quota in that study program is full.

Students who are not accepted in the first choice are transferred to the second choice and so on as long as the quota is still available.

The institution accepting new students then sends notifications to students regarding study programs and universities that can accept them and submits a list of students accepted into each study program at each university.

Students who are not accepted into any chosen study program will be referred to study programs that still do not meet the quota (Albæk, 2017).

That is the explanation above regarding the New Student Admission System in several countries that the Admin has explained, hopefully it can be useful.

Thank You.


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