The Most Complete Understanding of Educational Sciences in Terms of Etymology and Terminology

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For this reason, please see the explanation of the Definition of Educational Science in Etymology and Terminology below:

Understanding Education in Etymology and Terminology

The word education etymologically comes from the basic word didik, which has the prefix and suffix pe-an.

Turned into a verb to educate, which means helping children to master various knowledge, skills, attitudes and values inherited from their family and society.

This term first appeared in Greek, namely paedagigiek, which means the science of guiding children, and pedagogia is association with children, while the person who guides or educates children is a pedagogue.

The Romans saw education as educare, namely bringing out and guiding, the act of realizing the potential a child brings when they are born into the world.

Germans see education as erziehung, which is equivalent to educare, namely awakening latent powers or activating a child's strength or potential.

In English, the words education (noun) and aducate (verb) are known, which means to educate.

In the Oxford Learner's Pocket Dictionary, the word education is defined as training and learning (education is training and instruction).

Meanwhile, in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), education is defined as the process of changing the attitudes and behavior of a person or group in an effort to mature humans through the teaching and training process.

Meanwhile, in Javanese terminology, it is known as "pelipawentah", which means processing, looking after and nurturing both the physical and mental health of children.

In terms of terminology, experts express various opinions related to education, including the following:

John Dewey defined education as a process of forming fundamental skills both intellectually and emotionally towards nature and fellow humans.

J. Gielen and S. Strasser, refer to education as all the efforts of adults in their interactions with children to lead their physical and spiritual development towards maturity.

John S. Brubacher, defines education as a process where potentials, abilities, capacities that are easily influenced by habits, are perfected with good habits with tools arranged in such a way and used by humans to help others or themselves in achieving the goals set. 

Other education experts from Indonesia interpret education also in various ways, including:

Ki Hajar Dewantara, defines education as an effort to guide all the natural strengths that exist in children, both as individual humans and as members of society, so that they can achieve perfection in life.

Made Pidarta, said that education is the general theory of education.

Ngalim Purwanto, stated that education is all the efforts of adults in their interactions with children to lead their physical and spiritual development towards maturity.

Sutan Zanti Arbi, said that education is a deliberate and conscious effort to develop a child's personality so that they can become members of society.

As for the meaning of education according to the applicable juridical or statutory law, it can be seen from the two most recent educational laws in force in Indonesia.

Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 02 of 1989 concerning the National Education System states that education is a conscious effort directed at preparing students through teaching, guidance and/or training activities for their roles in the future.

Meanwhile, according to Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System, it is stated that education is a conscious and planned effort to create a learning atmosphere and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to have religious spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence. , noble morals, and skills needed for himself, society and the nation.

In Arabic, education is called Tarbiyah which is taken from the word Rabba (rabba - yurabbi - tarbiyah) which means to maintain, care for, care for, educate.

In Arabic literature, the word Tarbiyah has various definitions which essentially refer to the process of developing the potential bestowed on humans.

The definitions of Tarbiyah include the following:

Tarbiyah is a process of development and guidance of the body, mind and soul that is carried out on an ongoing basis so that mutarabbi (students) can mature and be independent to live in society.

Tarbiyah is an activity accompanied by affection, gentleness, wise attention and fun; not boring.

Tarbiyah is a process carried out with wise arrangements and carried out in stages from easy to difficult.

Tarbiyah is educating children through imparting education you, using a method that is easily accepted so that he can practice it in everyday life.

Tarbiyah is an activity that includes development, maintenance, care, management, imparting knowledge, providing instructions, guidance, improvement and a feeling of belonging to students.

In the definitions above, the elements of learning are implied, namely ta'lim and tadris (introduction), tahdib and ta'dib (cultivation of noble morals) and tadrib (training).

So from the long explanation of the meaning of education both etymologically, terminologically and juridically above, a common thread can finally be drawn, namely as follows:

  • Education takes the form of conscious and planned interactive activities.
  • Carried out by a minimum of two people, one party acts as a facilitator and dynamist while the other party acts as a subject who is trying to develop themselves.
  • The process is achieved through creating a learning atmosphere and learning process.
  • There are values that are believed to be true as the basis for activities.
  • Having good goals in order to develop all the internal potential of individual children.
  • The peak of achieving goals is maturity, both physically, psychologically, socially, emotionally, economically, morally and spiritually in students.

Experts agree that good education is always done through good educational methods.

A good way of educating is a way that is based on educational theories resulting from the thoughts and research results of experts.

Apart from that, the educational experiences of predecessors who are considered successful are also recognized as a reference for good educational methods.

In other words, good education is education that is carried out based on educational theories and practices agreed upon by experts which are summarized in scientific disciplines which are then called educational sciences.

Understanding Educational Science

In general, educational science is understood in 2 (two) meanings.

The first understanding is that educational science is understood as the art of educating or the art of teaching as expressed by Carter V. Good.

This kind of understanding assumes that educational science contains a series of effective tips for effective education, as studied and researched by experts.

The second meaning, educational science is understood as a scientific discipline that studies educational phenomena using scientific principles (science of education).

Indonesian education expert Brodjonegoro defines educational science narrowly and broadly.

Narrowly, educational science is defined as educational theory and reflection on education, while broadly it is defined as science that studies questions that arise in educational practice.

The Importance of Education for Life

Educational activities are carried out by many people in many places, especially as these activities are naturally carried out by parents with their children.

The practice of educational activities that have been carried out for millions of years by humans on this earth sometimes occurs repeatedly and does not receive sufficient evaluation by the perpetrators, including even people who call themselves educators.

The phenomenon of educating that is always repeated in a ritualistic and formalistic way with less attention to the unique conditions of each student and changes in the environment as described above will of course be less effective and can even be detrimental to students, giving rise to a practice called by Paolo Freire as a practice of dehumanization.

Dehumanization is a distortive educational practice that harms the educational practice itself.

Some experts also call such practices hominization or domistication (adoption), so that the results are counter-productive.

To avoid these undesirable things, the existence of educational science (as a science that studies the atmosphere and process of education that tries to solve the problems that occur in it so that it is able to offer choices on how to educate) is very important to study so that it can be the basis for activities educate.

By mastering the science of education, an educator will be able to educate well and avoid stupid actions that are detrimental to students.

Regarding educational science and its application in the world of education, there are at least 4 (four) things that prospective educators must master, which have become known as the Four Educator Competencies, namely as follows:

  • Understanding students
  • Mastering educational material in the form of subject matter
  • Mastering educational learning, and
  • Develop professional skills on an ongoing basis.

By mastering the four competencies as mentioned above, prospective teachers will be able to carry out educational and teaching tasks as well as possible for all the potential that children have.

The Nature of Education

Education is the transfer of knowledge, transfer of values and transfer of culture and transfer of religion, all of which are directed at efforts to humanize humans.

The essence of this educational process is an effort to change the behavior of individuals or groups so that they have agreed values based on religion, philosophy, ideology, politics, economics, social, culture and defense and security.

According to Paulo Freire's view, education is a cadre formation process with the essence of the goal being liberation.

The essence of education is the ability to educate oneself.

In the context of Islamic teachings, the essence of education is to restore divine values to humans (fitrah) with the guidance of the Qur'an and as-Sunnah (Hadith) so that they become humans with good morals (insan kamil).

Thus, the essence of education is largely determined by the values, motivation and goals of the education itself.

Therefore, the essence of education can be formulated as follows:

  • Education is a process of human interaction marked by a balance between the sovereignty of the student subject and the authority of the educator.
  • Education is an effort to prepare students to face an environment that is experiencing increasingly rapid changes.
  • Education improves the quality of personal and societal life.
  • Education lasts a lifetime.
  • Education is a tip in applying the principles of science.

That is the most complete explanation regarding the Definition of Educational Sciences in Etymology and Terminology, hopefully it will be useful.

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